# Kernel

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**Kernel** may refer to:

## Computing[edit]

- Kernel (image processing), a matrix used for image convolution
- Kernel (operating system), the central component of most operating systems
- Compute kernel, in GPGPU programming
- Kernel method, in machine learning
- In numerical analysis, a subroutine that performs a common numerical operation
- In particular, a routine that is executed in a vectorized loop; see, e.g., General-purpose computing on graphics processing units § Kernels

- Kernelization, a technique for designing efficient algorithms

## Mathematics[edit]

### Objects[edit]

- Kernel (algebra), a general concept that includes:
- Kernel (linear algebra) or null space, a set of vectors mapped to the zero vector
- Kernel (category theory), a generalization of the kernel of a homomorphism
- Kernel (set theory), an equivalence relation: partition by image under a function
- Difference kernel, a binary equalizer: the kernel of the difference of two functions

### Functions[edit]

- Kernel (geometry), the set of points within a polygon from which the whole polygon boundary is visible
- Kernel (statistics), a weighting function used in kernel density estimation to estimate the probability density function of a random variable
- Integral kernel or
**kernel function**, a function of two variables that defines an integral transform - Heat kernel, the fundamental solution to the heat equation on a specified domain
- Convolution kernel
- Stochastic kernel, the transition function of a stochastic process
- Transition kernel, a generalization of a stochastic kernel
- Pricing kernel, the stochastic discount factor used in mathematical finance
- Positive-definite kernel, a generalization of a positive-definite matrix
- Kernel trick, in statistics
- Reproducing kernel Hilbert space

## Natural sciences[edit]

- Seed, inside the nut of most plants, especially:
- Atomic nucleus, the center of an atom

## Other uses[edit]

- Kernel (digital media company), an e-commerce website
*Kernel*(EP), by the band Seam- Kernel (neurotechnology company), a developer of neural interfaces
- Kernel Fleck, a character in
*The Demonata*series of books - The Kernel Brewery, a craft brewery in London
- The Kernel, an Internet culture website, now part of
*The Daily Dot*

## People[edit]

- Brigitte Kernel (born 1959), French journalist and writer

## See also[edit]

- KERNAL, Commodore's 8-bit OS software

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